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Information Disorder in the Age of Coronavirus By: Ifeoma Theresa Amobi, PhD- A keynote paper presented at the Coin Media Guide 2020 Conference on World Press Freedom Day

Introduction

Long before modern journalism established standards which define news as a genre, based on particular rules of integrity, mobilizing and manipulating information were features of history. The concoction of alternative facts was hardly rare, and the equivalent of today’s poisonous, bite-size texts and tweets can be found in most periods of history, going back to the ancients. An early record dates back to ancient Rome, when Antony met Cleopatra and his political enemy Octavian launched a smear campaign  with “short, sharp slogans written upon coins in the style of archaic Tweets” to undermine him (Posetti & Matthews, 2018; Darnton, 2017).

The arrival of the Internet in the late 20th century, followed by social media in the 21st century, dramatically multiplied the risks of ‘Fake News’, a neologism used to conflate misinformation and disinformation, but which has become a weaponized term used to undermine and discredit journalism. Thus, ‘Information Disorder’ became a preferred term among journalists, since it conflates misinformation, disinformation and an additional category termed ‘Mal-information’. While Misinformation is information that is false, but believed to be true by the person sharing it , Disinformation is false and deliberately created to harm, and Mal-information is based on reality, but used to smear and embarrass a person, organization or country. Information Disorder causes chaos in society and can sometimes kill faster than the incidents reported about, or false claims made.

The way information is created and shared has dramatically changed over the past decades. New digital platforms have unleashed innovative journalistic practices that enable novel forms of communication and greater global reach, than at any point in history. The rapid accessibility of mobile devices and the rise of social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Blogs and others have only made it easier to deliver mis/disinformation and mal-information at a faster rate. Society is today witnessing the weaponization of information at an unprecedented speed and scale, as powerful new technologies make the manipulation and fabrication of content simple, with social networks dramatically amplifying falsehoods peddled by states, populist politicians, celebrities, dishonest corporate entities, and individuals, as they are shared by uncritical and unsuspecting publics. Added to this, is the arrival of profiteering ‘troll farms’ around elections as seen in the 2016 US Presidential elections. All these have created a very noisy information landscape, which presents new challenges for journalists, public health practitioners and health security professionals and society at large. Of these challenges, misinformation and disinformation propagation has commanded the public spotlight over the past few years and has significantly damaged the global informational landscape.

Misinformation and Disinformation in the Age of Coronavirus

Nigeria has had a long-running battle with misinformation and disinformation. Just as the Coronavirus itself, misinformation and disinformation has spread far and wide, drowning out credible sources of information. Misinformation thrives where people have little control over environmental threats, like volcanic eruptions, unpredictable weather patterns and a new disease (Nyilasy, 2020), such as COVID-19, which is unknown and uncertain. Any information that is false, but promises to restore basic needs that have been taken away by the new threat, spread quickly and is often believed. For example, claims of miracle remedies and vaccine discoveries for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 as well as the claim that the virus does not kill young people, appear to have been believed by some Nigerians, while factual information that is threatening is often downplayed and sometimes undermined.

The problem however, is that in times of health pandemics, misinformation becomes especially harmful, as was evident during the Ebola crisis in Nigeria, when narratives ranged from drinking and bathing in salty water to eating kola nuts as a treatment for the disease. Today, with COVID-19, similar dynamics are coming to play with misinformation narratives also changing rapidly, exacerbated by the sometimes limited and unclear messages from leaders. In early February, when Nigeria had not recorded any confirmed cases, there were claims such as: “African blood is immune to Coronavirus”, to a former Nigerian president allegedly calling Coronavirus a hoax (Centre for Democracy and Development, 2020).

The challenge with misinformation is that it can come from otherwise credible sources, who make speculations about certain issues and then spread their opinion as fact. For example, one of the most widely disseminated pandemic-related conspiracy theories is the idea is that 5G, a new generation of wireless communication, is responsible for the spread of the Coronavirus. This disinformation was also pushed by a popular and highly respected Nigerian pastor with large global following. One of the early conspiracy theories came out of the US, and claimed that the virus not only escaped from a lab, but  was intentionally created by Chinese scientists as a biowarfare weapon. According to Pew Research, “nearly three-in-10 Americans believe that COVID-19 was made in a lab,” either intentionally or accidentally with 23 percent believing the former and only 6 percent believing it was an accident. This theory which is particularly popular on the US political right, was popularized by US Senator Tom Cotton (Lynas, 2020).

Another conspiracy theory is the claim by anti-vaxxers who do not believe vaccines work, that Bill Gates wants to use a vaccination program to implant digital microchips that will somehow track and control people (Lynas, 2020). Similarly, a professionally produced video which has gone viral contains false claims and outright lies that Dr. Fauci, a key member of the US Coronavirus Taskforce is a secret member of a “deep state” of America’s elite is plotting to undermine the President Donald Trump’s handling of the pandemic. In the video, Dr. Judy Mikovits, an anti-vaccine activist, claimed that she was arrested and sent to prison, because she exposed the Coronavirus pandemic, as false. This video was debunked as false on New Day, a CNN programme which aired on May 8, 2020. One of the anchors, Erica Hill, who referred to it as “Infodemic”, noted that the video had been taken down by YouTube and Facebook, for violating their misinformation policies, but not before it had gained viral traction with millions of views. CNN reported that Facebook removed the video because it suggested that wearing a mask can make people sick and cause harm, while YouTube removed it, because “it violates their community guidelines, which include medically unsubstantiated diagnostic advice for COVID-19” (New Day, May 8, 2020). However, copies of the video are still circulating, because Twitter has refused to take it down, telling CNN that the video did not violate its misinformation policy. These videos have been shared and reshared on WhatsApp, Facebook and other social media platforms in Nigeria and many are inclined to believe them. According to Alan Duke, an online fact checker, whose company works with Facebook, lies travel faster than the virus, because they fit into people’s beliefs or the bubble, they are in (CNN, May 8, 2020). People’s sense of isolation, brought on by the lockdown and social distancing, makes it more likely for them to accept information from friends and family without scrutiny (Nyilasy, 2020). Mian and Khan, (2020), observe that over the last couple of months, posts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Center of Disease Control (CDC) have cumulatively only achieved several hundred thousand engagements, considerably eclipsed by hoax and conspiracy theory sites, which have amassed over 52 million. This serves to emphasize the popularity of unverified sources of information.

There are also several claims of miracle health remedies for the prevention and cure of COVID-19 circulating on various social media platforms. These health remedies range from the use of steam inhalation for prevention, to treatment with Garlic, Onions, Lemon, Piper Guineense or Uziza Seeds, Negro Pepper or Uda Seeds, as well as the use of Garlic and Pepper Soup for the cure of Coronavirus.

CURTAILING INFORMATION DISORDER

Since information is capable of inciting emotion, shaping one’s perception of reality and influencing what decision we take, including in matters of life and death, it is necessary that information we share, must be factual and accurate, even in the most trying of times, such as we are now witnessing. Disinformation can be more dangerous than cyber-attacks, and can spread faster than governments, social media or media outlets can react to its dispersion. Wole Soyinka has warned that if Nigeria is not careful, World War 111 will be started by fake news generated by a Nigerian (VOA, February 13, 2019).

Everyone has the responsibility to combat this scourge which continues to threaten not only our democracy, but also our very existence, but we as journalists and journalism educators owe it more to our country and to the larger society, to come up with not only ways of fighting it, but participating in the war. To have any chance at success, the fight must be multi-sectoral and the strategies far reaching. Although, every strategy has its flaw, combining technological and human efforts in line with the peculiarities in each environment appears to be a better approach. The challenge however, is how to address the problems without undermining the benefits of digital media.

Social Media and Technological Companies

Pew Research Center, reports that in 2016, 76% of Internet users in Africa relied on social media for their information needs (cited in Amobi et al, 2019). Indeed, several studies have shown that Social Media is one of the greatest purveyors and enablers of information disorder, with WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram being the dominant platforms that aid their distribution (Amobi et al, 2019). This makes social media an effective tool in curtailing the menace. These efforts include:

  • Banning users found to be purveyors of misinformation and/or disinformation and shutting down their accounts on social media. For example, the US conspiracy theorist, Alex Jones was banned from Twitter and most major platforms for posting false and inciting messages.
  • Social media platforms should figure out how to keep misinformation and disinformation off. It is not just enough to limit the number of times a post can be shared, as the same post can be reshared from the receiver’s page.
  • Technological companies should invest in tools that identify mis/disinformation, such as the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI), by the US Department of Defense to detect manipulated pictures and videos. This may be in response to the Russian interference in the 2016 presidential elections (Gupta, 2018).
  • Financial incentives for those who profit from disinformation should be reduced.
  • Online accountability should be improved, through the registration of real names on hosting platforms.

Government

Misinformation and Disinformation can be so destructive, that government may sometimes be tempted to use stern and undemocratic measures to curb it. Some members of government have suggested naming and shaming of culprits, others have suggested using legislation to fight it, as demonstrated by the ongoing attempt by Nigerian government to enact a Social Media Bill. Some African countries in varying degrees are complicit in the clampdown of journalists for performing their functions. For example, Kenya’s president, Uhuru Kenyatta in 2018 signed a cybercrimes bill that calls for fines and prison sentences for people convicted of spreading fake news, while authorities in Uganda warned that perpetrators face charges under a law prescribing criminal penalties for the misuse of a computer (VOA, 2019). Journalists and activists have protested these moves as a ploy to censor press freedom. Thus, government can help solve the problem of misinformation in the following ways:

  • Government should resist creating or providing the fodder for misinformation, which it does by sometimes maligning true stories that do not favour it.
  • It should stop restricting journalists’ access to data. For example, when journalists are denied access to the full picture or scope of COVID-19, such as the number cases, the extent of spread and the true number of deaths, this creates the opportunity for information peddlers to create and spread their own false stories.
  • Government should provide detailed, clear and transparent official information that crowds out mis/disinformation, rather than information that will help it save face or prevent panic.
  • Government should desist from demonizing the media with the term “Fake news”, which has almost become a cliché.
  • Government should encourage independent professional journalism, which helps the public make sense of complex developments and deal with changing nature of society.
  • Educational institutions should include media literacy in their curricula

Since government regulations can only do so much in stopping the spread of disinformation, it is up to the public to determine what is true or false, and many people will already have made up their minds.

Prosumers

As a responsible citizen, you owe it to yourself and to others the responsibility to create and or share factual information. This is because people who hold you in high esteem, may believe every information you send to them and may reshare such information without verifying it, even when they have the skill set to do so. Individuals should therefore engage in “Information hygiene exercises” which can be considered as the mental equivalent of hand washing and distancing. AfricaCheck has recommended the following questions you should ask yourself before creating or sharing any information:

  • Who wrote it?

It is not always the person who sent you the message that created it. Many fake messages (especially forwarded ones) do not say who wrote the message. So, how can you trust a message which source you cannot determine? Before you share or act on the message: Ask the sender who the author and source is, and double-check the facts.

  • Can you verify the claims?

Many fake messages don’t give sources for their claims, or use unreliable sources like hoax news sites, or fake names. Some fakes say they come from a trusted source, such as a real news site – but they’re lying. So, before you share, check to see if it has been reported on any trusted news sites or other sources, and check the links to ensure that they are not hoax sites.

  • Does the information make you scared and angry?

Some information makes you so scared and angry, preying on your prejudices, so much so, that you feel like going to bite somebody. If the information incites such visceral impulse or emotions in you, it means that the message makes it difficult for you to apply critical analysis. Many fake messages try to make us scared or angry about something. Examples abound of South Africans or the Chinese carrying out xenophobic attacks against Nigerians.

  • Does it include shocking photos or videos?

Many fake messages use pictures, video or audio to trick us. These could be edited to be misleading. They could also be taken from a different event in another time or place. They can be shocking claims about crime or kidnapping, about people from a different country or ethnic group. For example, a graphic image of a mutilated baby who was killed in Congo-Brazzaville in 2012 was shared with the accompanying information that the act was perpetrated by the Fulanis in 2018 against the Beroms in Jos. Many fake messages can be checked out online, or on reliable news sites or fact-checking websites such as AfricaCheck.org or Snopes.com.

  • Poor Content Quality: Other tell-tale signs include the quality of content. A lot of mis/disinformation, contain grammatical errors, illogical statements and are usually not professionally produced.
  • Individuals should follow a diversity of news sources and be skeptical about info

Mainstream Media

In the so-called Digital Age, when information can spread quickly to other users without having to go through a gatekeeper such as an editor, who might otherwise require confirmation of its truth before allowing its publication, media outlets can help curtail information disorder when they begin to fulfil their role as the accredited information purveyor:

  • Through debunking and denying mis/disinformation, using inhouse professionals and partnering with fact checking organizations.
  • By providing high quality journalism to build public trust and correct mis/disinformation. This is partly premised on the notion that people have turned to social media because they are dissatisfied with the mainstream media (Bernal, 2017). In this scenario, people are then likely to take as credible whatever content is endorsed by their social networks, and which corresponds with their hearts – but leaves out engagement with their heads.
  • By giving factual, unadulterated accounts of news events and limit the use of rejoinders. They should strive to correct mistakes quickly and efficiently, and they publish corrections on the internet and social media in an effort to be transparent. This should however, be limited because, not everyone who read the incorrect story, will read the rejoinder.
  • Using investigative techniques and courageous challenge to authority. Journalists looking to do this today need look to the Watergate scandal under President Richard Nixon, when journalists used facts, and held power to account, in order to bring out the truth.
  • Keeping reporters and editors in several locations in a wide range of locations around the world in order to produce original content. This allows them to rely on their own reporting, instead of receiving it from external outlets.
  • Training Journalists on the various ways to overcome fake news through programs like Journalism in the Era of Disinformation Fellowship which helps journalists learn new ways to fight disinformation, while developing a network of colleagues around the world who are dealing with similar issues.
  • Rejecting mis/disinformation Ads. For example, CNN, MSNBC and other outlets rejected ads containing disinformation on the role played by former Vice President Joe Biden, the democratic presumptive nominee, in fighting corruption in Ukraine.
  • Holding Media Literacy Programmes by teaching audiences how to properly consume news: access, analyse, evaluate, create, and act using all forms of communication.
  • Also educating users about news sites that mislead, by judging the accuracy of leader claims and write stories detailing the truth or lack thereof.

Conclusion

It is no longer in doubt what a scary world we live in today and the urgency needed to return it to normalcy. A world where people are suspicious and untrusting of one another, a polarised world in which the quickest impulse is to make for our tribal and ethnic camps, threatens not only our democracy, but our journalism profession and indeed, our very existence in society. It is my submission that this situation is to a large extent created, nurtured and sustained by information disorder, and can only be defeated by a collaborative effort, but we as journalists and journalism educators, must be at the forefront of the war.

 

References

AfricaCheck. (2019). Questions you should ask yourself before creating or sharing information. Retrieved from https://africacheck.org/how-to-fact-check/tips-and-advice/

Amobi, T., Obia, V., Udodi, L. & Akinuliola, O. (2019) Media and the menace of information disorder in Nigeria’s public sphere. (In Press)

Centre for Democracy and Development. (2020). Health misinformation: False stories from Ebola to coronavirus. Retrieved from https://www.thecable.ng/health-misinformation-false-stories-from-ebola-to-coronavirus

Hill, Erica. (May 8, 2020). New day. CNN

Lynas, M. (April 20, 2020). COVID: Top 10 current conspiracy theories. Retrieved from https://allianceforscience.cornell.edu/blog/2020/04/covid-top-10-current-conspiracy-theories/

Matthews, K. (2019). Learning journalism’s role in an era of disinformation: Fact-checking and verification. Retrieved from https://ijnet.org/en/story/learning-journalism%E2%80%99s-role-era-disinformation

Mian, A. and Khan, S. (2020). Coronavirus: the spread of misinformation. Retrieved from https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-020-01556-3

Nyilasy, G. (2019). Fake news: When the dark side of persuasion takes over. International Journal of Advertising. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. DOI: 10.1080/02650487.2019.1586210

Posetti, J. & Matthews, A. (2018). A short guide to the history of fake news and disinformation. International Centre for Journalists.

VOA. (February 13, 2019). Battle against fake news ahead of elections. Retrieved from http://voanews.com

 

 
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Posted by on May 19, 2020 in Uncategorized

 

MAS 770: ADVANCED FILM AND TV PRODUCTION: Course Syllabus and Outline

                                                         UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS

                                     DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION

                              MAS 770: ADVANCED FILM AND TV PRODUCTION

Course syllabus and Outline

 

Lecturer: Dr. Ifeoma T. Amobi

Email: tamobi@unilag.edu.ng

Twitter: @amobifeoma

Blog: http://www.profteri.wordpress.com

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course will provide students with the knowledge and skills of film and video production, through exposure to the theory, terminology, and operation of single and multi camera film and video production, including composition and editing techniques, camera operation, portable lighting, video recorder operation, audio control in the single and double-sound systems, film stock and digital video formats and editing. It also focuses on the aesthetics and fundamentals of scripting, producing, and directing on location, incorporating multimedia, and postproduction for film, broadcasting, and cable or business media.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of the course students should be able to:

  • Conceptualize an idea for the topic of selection
  • Write Film and Television scripts
  • Make use of contemporary methods to shoot video
  • Edit a video presentation
  • Critically evaluate theories as applied to practical TV and Film problems

COURSE CONTENT

 Introduction to Film

  • Definition of Basic Concepts: Film, Cinema, Narrative
  • Genres of Film
  • Purpose & Functions of Film: (its aesthetic, socio-political, spiritual, economic, expressive aspects)
  • Film typologies (Silent, Comedy, Drama, Western, Mystery/Crime/Detective, Horror/Thriller, Science fiction and Others)
  • Fictional and Non-fictional

 Overview of Global Cinema

  • Hollywood: The American Film Industry
  • Bollywood: The Indian film Industry
  • Nollywood: The Nigerian Film Industry

Elements of Film

  • Theme
  • Plot
  • Characters
  • Technical requirements

Introduction to Television

  • Definition of Basic Concepts
  • The nature of television
  • Purpose & Functions of Television
  • Types of Television Programmes

Script Writing for Film and Television

  • Writing for television
  • Elements of a standard television script
  • Script Formats: Partially scripted, Run-down, Outline etc
  • Script Typologies: News scripts, Drama scripts, Interview scripts etc

Basic Dramatic Structures

  • Dramatic and non-dramatic structures
  • 3 ACT Structure
  • Elements of Drama
  • Drama Plot, Idea, Character, Dialogue, Conflict, Resolution, Motivation, Inspiration and Application

Documentaries

  • What are documentaries?
  • Documentary typologies
  • Features of Documentaries

How to Produce Documentaries for Television

  • Documentary production techniques
  • Documentary production process
  • What does it take to do a good documentary?
  • Where do good stories come from?
  • Choosing a subject matter

Documentary research

  • Content research
  • Conceptualizing the appropriate treatment and style
  • Use of music, narration and archival material
  • Ethical issues for documentaries

Documentary production

  • Students present video documentary proposal.
  • Research on the topic they would like to produce for the course
  • Discuss production plan: crew, schedule, equipment and approach.
  • Production
  • Edit video documentaries
  • Screening of projects

The Business of Documentaries:

  • Fundraising, Marketing and Distribution.

Roles of crew in TV/Film Production

  • Producer
  • Director
  • Script Writer
  • Director of Photography
  • Production Manager/ Production Assistants
  • Cast
  • Lighting Director
  • Production and Set Designer
  • Costume Designer
  • Sound Director
  • Make-up Artist
  • Music Director
  • Composer
  • Editor

Theorizing Film

  • Auteur Theory
  • Feminist Film Theory
  • Symbolic Annihilation
  • Muted Group
  • Reception
  • Queer

                                                          

                                                         ASSIGNMENTS

You will be asked to demonstrate your understanding of this course through written reports, video production and presentations, class participation, and discussions. All assignments must be posted to either YouTube or your group blog.

Assignment 1 (10%):

  • Create a free account (username) at WordPress.com
  • Create a free account (username) at YouTube.com
  • Sign up to Twitter and follow the course lecturer at @amobifeoma
  • Create Facebook & Instagram accounts if you don’t already have
  • Link your Twitter, Facebook and Instagram accounts to your blog and YouTube accounts, so that whatever you publish on your blog or YouTube will be shared by all accounts
  • Students will be required to produce a 5-7 min television programme and publish on both YouTube and blog

Assignment 2 (30%):

The class will be required to produce a short film and documentary as its final course projects.

Exam (60%)

 
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Posted by on March 1, 2020 in Uncategorized

 

MAS 801 – THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION: Course syllabus and Outline

UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS

                                   DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION

                                   MAS 801: THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION

Course syllabus and Outline

 

                                             Lecturer: Dr. Oloruntola Sunday

Lecturer: Dr. Ifeoma T. Amobi

Email: tamobi@unilag.edu.ng

Twitter: @amobifeoma

Blog: http://www.profteri.wordpress.com

                                                 Lecturer: Dr. Ebony Oketunbi

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course will explore the theoretical foundations of the media and the paradigm shifts in Mass Communication. It will trace the development of media theories following the four eras of Mass Communication theory: mass society, scientific perspective/limited effects, cultural criticism and moderate effects. It will examine the various categories of theories including Normative, Source, Message, Channels/Medium, and Audience theories and introduce students to the use of these theories for analyzing and understanding the processes and problems of mass communication. It will also trace the emergence and growth of Development Communication theories as well as theories of Media and Gender with the ultimate aim of demonstrating how these theories can be applied to developmental issues in society.

Ultimately, the course seeks to develop and enhance students’ understanding and interpretation of communication theories as well as their ability to apply these theories to their own research inquiries and endeavours.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

 Upon completion of the course students should be able to:

  • Understand the historical development of Mass Communication theories and how they link with historically important social, political and technological events/issues in the field of communication.
  • Develop an understanding of the strengths and limitations of basic theories of mass communication and the ability to apply those theories in research and practice.
  • Comprehend how mass communication theories are accepted throughout society.
  • Discover that mass communication is often at the centre of how we perceive “truth “ and “reality”
  • Critically evaluate theories as applied to practical mass communication problems e.g. media portrayals of sex and violence.

 COURSE CONTENT

  1. INTRODUCTION
  • What is theory?
  • Mutuality of Research and Theory
  • Functions of theories
  • Why do we study theory?
  1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THEORY
  • Origin of mass communication theories
  • Paradigm shifts in Mass communication theories
  1. NORMATIVE THEORIES
  • Authoritarian media theory
  • Soviet-communist media theory
  • Libertarian or free press media theory
  • Social responsibility media theory
  • Democratic participant media theory
  • Development media theory
  1. SOURCE THEORIES
  • Agenda setting
  • Gate-keeping
  • Source Credibility
  • Hegemony
  • Status Conferral
  • Media Malaise
  1. MESSAGE THEORIES
  • Agenda setting
  • Framing
  • Priming
  •  Agenda Building
  • Social Construction
  • Script
  • Propaganda
  1. AUDIENCE THEORIES
  • Two step flow
  • Uses and gratifications
  • Individual Differences
  • Social categories
  • Social Action
  • Social Networks
  • Cultivation Analysis
  • Social Learning
  • Aggressive Cues
  • Carthasis
  • Face Negotiation
  • Contagion
  • Spiral of Silence
  • Hypodermic/Stimulus-Response/Magic Bullet
  • Knowledge Gap
  • Social Constructivist
  • Persuasion theories
  • Media Dependency
  • Cognitive Dissonance theories
  • Reinforcement
  • Symbolic Interaction
  1. DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION THEORIES
  • Modernization
  • Diffusion of Innovations
  • Entertainment Education
  • Participatory Model
  • Behavior Change Communication BCC
  • Communication for Social Change CFSC Model
  1. MEDIA AND GENDER THEORIES
  • Patriarchy
  • Role theory
  • Symbolic Annihilation
  • Muted Group
  • Feminist theory
  • Queer
  • Media Representation
  1. INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION THEORIES
  • World Systems
  • Dependency
  • Structural Imperialism
  • Cultural Imperialism
  • Globalization
  1. MEDIUM THEORIES
  • Global Village
  • The Medium is the Message
  • Mediamorphosis
  • Hyperpersonal Communication
  • Public Sphere
  1. NEW MEDIA/TECHNOLOGY THEORIES
  • Technological Determinism
  • Technology Acceptance Model
  • Domestication
  • Mediation
  • Social Shaping of Technology
  • Digital Divide
  1. CYBER COMMUNICATION THEORIES
  • Global Village
  • Internet Addiction
  • Internet Dependency
  • Social Network
  • Outcome Interactivity
  1. HEALTH COMMUNICATION THEORIES
  • Health Belief Model
  • Transtheoretical Model
  • Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Social Marketing
  • Panned Behaviour/Reasoned Action
  • Transactional Model of Stress and Coping
  • Social Ecological Model
  • Elaboration Likelihood Model
  1. FILM THEORIES
  • Auteur
  • Symbolic Annihilation
  • Feminist Film theories
  • Reception
  • Play
  • Meaning Theory of Portrayal
  • Film Criticism (Realist and formalist, Psychoanalytic, Ideological, New historicist)
  1. MANAGEMENT THEORIES
  • Theory X and Theory Y
  • Contingency
  • Theory Z
  • Systems
  • Maslow Theory of Hierarchical Needs
  • Transactional Leadership
  • Two factor Theory of Motivation
  1. ADVERTISING
  • Attribution
  • AIDA Model
  • Social Marketing

                                                     ASSIGNMENTS

To assess students’ grasp of the course, each student is expected to complete the following:

  1. Identify one social problem and generate a researchable topic. Then, using one or more of the relevant theories you have learnt in this course conduct an empirical study of the problem. Report of the study should be scholarly in nature and not more than 15 pages long- 25%
  2. Review one study from any of the recommended journals and assess the suitability of the guiding theory or theories- 15%

GRADING SYSTEM

  1. Attendance, assignments and class participation will account for 40% of the total score in this course.
  2. The semester examination will account for the remaining 60%.

RECOMMENDED TEXTS 

Amobi, T. I. (2010). Paradigm shifts in mass communication theories, in Ralph Akinfeleye (ed.).

Mass communication: A book of readings

Anaeto, S. G., Onabajo, O. & Osifeso, J. B. (2008). Models and theories of communication

Bowie, MD: African Renaissance Inc..

Baran, S.J. and Davis, D. K. (2003). Mass communication theory: Foundations ferment & future.

3rd edition, Belmont CA.: Wadsworth.

Baran, S.J. and Davis, D. K. (2009). Mass communication theory: Foundations ferment & future.  5th edition, Belmont CA.: Wadsworth

Folarin, B. (2003). Theories of mass communication: An introductory text.

Jeffres, L. W. (1997). Mass media effects 2nd edition, Illinois: Waveland Press Inc.

Littlejohn, S.W. and Foss, K.A. (2008). Theories of human communication. 9th edition, Belmont, CA.: Thompson Wadsworth

McQuail, D. (2005). Mass communication theory: An introduction. 5th edition, Thousand Oaks: Sage

McQuail, D. (2010). Mass communication theory: An introduction. 6th edition, Thousand Oaks: Sage

Severin, W. J & Tankard, Jr. J. W. (2001),     Communication theories: Origins, methods & uses in the mass media. 5th edition, New York: Longman.

 

 
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Posted by on February 23, 2020 in Uncategorized

 

MAS 827: NEWS ELECTRONICS: Course syllabus and Outline

 

UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS

SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES

DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION

 

 MAS 827: NEWS ELECTRONICS

Course syllabus and Outline

Lecturer: Dr. Ifeoma T. Amobi

Email: teribabe57@yahoo.com

Email: tamobi@unilag.edu.ng

Twitter: @amobifeoma

Tumblr: http://www.profteri.tumblr.com

 

   COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course will provide students with the knowledge and skills of Radio, Television and Web News Writing and production. They will be guided to develop clear, concise and conversational writing style with emphasis on accuracy, good grammar and strong leads, formatting broadcast scripts as well as producing multimedia news packages. The course will also focus on discussions and analyses of current topics in journalism, such as legal and ethical dilemmas and the internal dynamics of today’s Multimedia News Rooms.

 LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of the course students should be able to:

  • Understand the global online and multimedia journalism landscape
  • Appreciate the elements of online and multimedia journalism
  • Write clear, concise news stories
  • Produce various news packages
  • Demonstrate clear knowledge of how to work in today’s Multimedia news room
  • Critically analyze issues in Electronic Journalism

 

COURSE CONTENT

 Overview of Electronic Journalism:

  • Electronic journalism defined
  • Interactive News
  • Radio/TV News
  • Digital/Online Journalism

Online and Multimedia Journalism Around the World:

  • Multimedia journalism defined
  • Structure of Online News sites
  • Online-Only News publications
  • Internet Radio and Television
  • The Changing landscape: Why Newspapers and Broadcast outlets are on the web
  • Online and Multimedia Journalism in Nigeria

Distinguishing features of Online and Multimedia Journalism:

  • Reporting
  • Producing
  • Distribution: On-Demand Delivery, Breaking News, Updates,
  • Multimedia: Video, Audio, Podcast, Text, Animation, Maps, Still photos, Graphics, Slideshows, Gaming, Hyperlinks
  • Interactivity
  • Multimedia Convergence
  • Archiving

Writing for the Web

  • Choosing the Right Media to Tell a Story
  • Writing for the web: Shaping your Text for Online reading; Creating Hyperlinks; Writing SEO-Friendly Headlines; SEO the image

Producing Multimedia News Package:

  • Gathering and Editing Audio
  • Shooting, Cropping, Toning and Optimizing Photos
  • Creating Slideshows
  • Shooting and Editing Videos
  • Producing the Multimedia Story
  • Publishing the Multimedia Story Online

Building and Tracking Online Traffic

  • Optimize stories for search: Writing SEO-Friendly Headlines
  • SEO Images
  • Monitor SEO Placement
  • Using Analytical Tools to Measure Traffic to News Website (Google Analytics, Site Meter, Stat Counter, Bitly, Piwik, Open Web Analytics, Clicky, Mint, etc.)

Theorizing Electronic News

  • CNN Effect
  • Agenda Setting
  • Marshal McLuhan’s “The Medium is The Message”
  • Gatekeeping
  • Interactivity

Ethical, legal and Security Challenges in Online and Multimedia Journalism

  • Fake News
  • Graphic Manipulation
  • Fair Use, Copyright and Ownership
  • Plagiarism
  • Hyperlinks
  • Sensationalism
  • Trolling/Stalking
  • Cyberbullying
  • Cookies
  • Spyware
  • Trojan Horse
  • Worm
  • Hacking
  • Phishing

 

ASSIGNMENTS

You will be asked to demonstrate your understanding of this course through written reports, production and presentation of various news formats, class participation, and discussions. All assignments must be published on either a YouTube Channel or WordPress blog set up for this course.

Assignment 1 (5%)

Each group is expected to:

  • Create a free account (username) at WordPress.com
  • Create a free account (username) at YouTube.com
  • Sign up to Twitter and follow the course lecturer at @amobifeoma
  • Create a Facebook account if you don’t already have one
  • Link your Twitter and Facebook accounts to your blog and YouTube accounts, so that whatever you publish on your blog or YouTube will be shared by both accounts

Assignment 2 (35%):

Students will be required to gather news from a beat to be assigned by the course lecturer and produce a multimedia package which will be published on the course blog

Exam (60%):

Compulsory Text
Amobi T. I. & McAdams, M. (2014). Issues and techniques in Multimedia and online journalism. Lagos: Concept Publishers

 
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Posted by on July 23, 2018 in Uncategorized

 

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MAS 832: ADVANCED PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES (TV/FILM): Course syllabus and Outline

                                                 UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS

                              DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION

                MAS 832: ADVANCED PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES (TV/FILM)

Course syllabus and Outline

                          

Lecturer: Dr. Ifeoma T. Amobi

Email: teribabe57@yahoo.com

Email:tamobi@unilag.edu.ng

Email: adaure.amobi3@gmail.com

Twitter: @amobifeoma

Tumblr: http://www.profteri.tumblr.com

 

DESCRIPTION

This course will provide students with class and studio/lab instructions on television/film production techniques. It will teach them how to conceptualize story ideas and effectively translate these ideas into video productions. It will also expose them to the aesthetics and techniques of multi-camera and single camera studio and on-location video recording and postproduction editing and how to plan shoots, operate cameras and lighting as well as carry out video editing. Students will be required to spend considerable time outside of the normally scheduled class periods working on projects.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of the course students should be able to:

  • Express personal creativity while developing the ability to conceptualize story ideas and effectively translate these ideas into video productions
  • Write news, interview, drama, & documentary scripts for TV and screenplays for Film
  • Demonstrate effective camera placement and operations, including a basic understanding of multi-camera studio production, camera color balancing, camera optics, light levels and the use of special filters.
  • Show a general understanding of postproduction, including Editing techniques
  • Produce video projects individually and in groups.
  • Demonstrate the ability to critique the strengths and weakness of video productions
  • Understand the duties and responsibilities of various personnel in TV/film productions
  • Understand the influences of new technology on traditional and new media

 

COURSE CONTENT:

OVERVIEW OF PRODUCTION

  • Definition
  • The film production process
  • The television production process
  • The Production crew- Functions, roles, and skills

WRITING FOR TELEVISION &FILM

  • Features of a standard Television script
  • Writing News, interview, drama, and documentary scripts for TV/Video
  • Script writing for film

ELECTRONIC NEWS GATHERING (ENG) FOR TV

  • What is ENG?
  • ENG Equipment
  • Getting the Story
  • Recording the Story
  • Telling the Story
  • Producing the Story

PRODUCTION OF TALK SHOWS FOR TELEVISION

  • Producing and presenting interview programmes- techniques
  • Producing and presenting Discussion programmes- techniques
  • Producing and presenting Debate programmes- techniques

PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTARY PROGRAMMES FOR TELEVISION/FILM

  • What are documentaries?
  • Documentary typologies
  • Documentary production techniques
  • Documentary production process

PRODUCTION OF DRAMA FOR TELEVISION/FILM

  • What is drama?
  • Drama typologies
  • Characterization and Casting
  • The Plot
  • Locations and Sets
  • Drama Production Process

CAMERA & LIGHTING

  • The video camera
  • Digital video, lenses, Optics
  • Camera and shooting
  • Studio camera operations
  • Lighting techniques for video and film

POST PRODUCTION

  • Video editing techniques
  • Sound

 

 

      ASSIGNMENTS (40%)

 

Students will be asked to demonstrate their understanding of this course through written reports, and presentations, class participation, and discussions. As the final project, they will design hypothetical programming and marketing plans for radio and television stations.

 

  • Create a free account (username) at WordPress.com
  • Create a free account (username) at YouTube.com
  • Sign up to Twitter and follow the course lecturer at @amobifeoma
  • Create a Facebook account if you don’t already have one
  • Link your Twitter and Facebook accounts to your blog and YouTube accounts, so that whatever you publish on your blog or YouTube will be shared by both accounts
  • All assignments must be posted to either students’ YouTube channel and/or their group blog.

 

PRODUCTION ASSIGNMENTS

CAMPUS STORY. Cover any event on campus that you want to tell a story about and report live from the venue. (Length: open.) Before you start work write out a script. This is to be turned in with your video. Don’t worry about minor differences between your script and your final video.

SHORT FEATURE FILM. Do a short (approximately ten minutes) dramatic scene with four or more actors. This piece must include at least six, sequential, A-B dialogue sound edits. Use a variety of shots keeping in mind the techniques of single-camera production. Particular emphasis will be placed on editing and smooth audio edits.

 

Exam (60%):

 

 

 

 

 
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Posted by on July 19, 2018 in Uncategorized

 

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MAS 831: ADVANCED RADIO PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES: Course syllabus and Outline

UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS

DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION

MAS 831: ADVANCED RADIO PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

Course syllabus and Outline

                          

Lecturer: Dr. Ifeoma T. Amobi

Email: tamobi@unilag.edu.ng

Email: adaure.amobi3@gmail.com

Email: amobifeoma@ymail.com

Twitter: @amobifeoma

Tumblr: http://www.profteri.tumblr.com

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course provides students with class and studio/lab instructions on radio production techniques. It teaches them how to conceptualize story ideas and effectively translate these ideas into audio productions. It also exposes them to the aesthetics and techniques of outside broadcasting and studio operations as well as how to carry out audio editing. Students are required to spend considerable time outside of the normally scheduled class periods working on projects.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of the course students should be able to:

  • Express personal creativity while developing the ability to conceptualize story ideas and effectively translate these ideas into audio productions
  • Write news, interview, drama, & documentary scripts for Radio
  • Demonstrate knowledge of studio operations, including a basic understanding of the audio mixer and microphones
  • Show a general understanding of postproduction, including Editing techniques
  • Produce audio projects individually and in groups.
  • Demonstrate the ability to critique the strengths and weakness of audio productions
  • Understand the duties and responsibilities of various personnel in Radio productions
  • Understand the influences of new technologies on Radio

COURSE CONTENT

OVERVIEW OF PRODUCTION

  • The nature of radio
  • The multi-stage nature of broadcast signals
  • The radio production process
  • The Production crew- Functions, roles, and skills

WRITING FOR RADIO

  • Radio story formats
  • Drawing Radio pictures
  • Features of a standard Radio script
  • Writing News, interview, talk-show drama, spot announcement and documentary scripts for Radio

PRODUCTION OF TALK SHOWS FOR RADIO

  • Producing and presenting interview programmes- techniques
  • Producing and presenting Discussion programmes- techniques
  • Producing and presenting Debate programmes- techniques

PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTARY PROGRAMMES FOR RADIO

  • What are documentaries?
  • Documentary typologies
  • Documentary production techniques
  • Documentary production process

THE RADIO DRAMA

  • Drama defined
  • Features of Radio drama
  • Drama on Nigerian radio stations
  • Documentary production process

STUDIO PERSONNEL/LOG BOOKS

  • The producer, Director, Studio Manager, Floor Manager, Editor, Studio Engineer
  • Log Book defined
  • Types of log books
  • Importance of log books to broadcasting

POST PRODUCTION

  • Audio editing techniques

ASSIGNMENTS (40%)

Students will be asked to demonstrate their understanding of this course through written reports, designing hypothetical programming and marketing plans for radio stations and presentations, class participation, and discussions. As the final project, they will produce a radio drama and documentary.

  • Create a free account (username) at WordPress.com
  • Sign up to Twitter and follow the course lecturer at @amobifeoma
  • Create a Facebook account if you don’t already have one
  • Link your Twitter and Facebook accounts to your blog accounts, so that whatever you publish on your blog will be shared by both accounts
  • All assignments must be posted to students’ group blog.

EXAMS (60%)

 

 

 
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Posted by on February 18, 2018 in Uncategorized

 

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MAS 115: INTRODUCTION TO ONLINE JOURNALISM 1: Course syllabus and Outline

UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS

DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION

MAS 115: INTRODUCTION TO ONLINE JOURNALISM 1

Course syllabus and Outline

Lecturer: Dr. Theresa Ifeoma Amobi

Email: amobifeoma@ymail.com

Email: adaure,amobi@gmail.com

Blog: http://www.profteri.wordpress.comTwitter: @amobifeoma

 

Lecturer: Dr. Olunifesi Suraj

Email: olunifesi@gmail.com

Twitter: @olunifesisuraj

Lecturer: Samuel Ejiwunmi  

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Over the last two decades, advances in media technologies, corporate structure and organization of public life have demanded changes in the practice of journalism. This course therefore focuses on the use of multimedia tools such as computers, internet, digital audio recorders, video recorders, cameras and GSM phones to tell stories and their effects on journalism’s role in society. It will also introduce you to the techniques of journalism in digital media and offer you conceptual tools with which to join the fray. The class will also include lectures on new-media themes, such as the security and ethical challenges of publishing online; and the characteristics that distinguish news Web sites from print and broadcast media.

 COURSE OBJECTIVES

 Upon completion of the course students should be able to do the following:

  • Become familiar with online journalism around the world
  • Demonstrate a clear understanding and articulation of the field of online journalism through scholarly writing and presentations relative to the course contents
  • Identify the unique features of news Web sites – such as multimedia, and interactive chats and blogs.
  • Become familiar with multimedia elements and how they are used to tell a story online
  • Create blogs and upload assignments to them
  • Participate in Social media by creating Facebook and Twitter accounts and posting tweets regularly using retweets and hash tags
  • Demonstrate the ability to record and edit and publish basic audio interviews
  • Master the tips and techniques for gathering reliable information on the internet

PREREQUISITES:

  • Computer Appreciation
  • Familiarity with the Internet.

COURSE CONTENT

  1. OVERVIEW OF ONLINE JOURNALISM AROUND THE WORLD
  • What is online journalism?
  • Multimedia Journalism
  • Convergence
  • Online-Only Newspapers
  • Hybrid Newspapers
  • Internet Television
  • The Changing Landscape: Why newspapers and broadcast outlets are on the web
  • Unique features of news websites: Multimedia, and interactive chats and blogs.
  1. ELEMENTS OF MULTIMEDIA AND ONLINE JOURNALISM
  • Video
  • Audio
  • Podcasts
  • Headlines
  • Texts
  • Animation
  • Maps
  • Still photos
  • Graphics
  • Slideshows
  • Online gaming
  • Interactivity
  • Hyperlinks
  1. ONLINE AND MULTIMEDIA JOURNALISM
  • 5 Easy Steps to Great Online Communication
  • Choosing the right media format to tell a story
  • Editorial Tools for real-time audience building
  1. CITIZEN AND PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM
  • Citizen and Participatory Journalism
  • Hyperlocal Journalism
  • Blogging
  • Crowdsourcing
  1. NEW MEDIA AND SOCIAL NETWORKS
  • New Media
  • Social Media
  • Social networking websites such as Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn
  • Microblogging websites such as Twitter
  • Video sharing websites such as YouTube
  • Photo sharing websites such as Flickr, Instagram
  • Weblogs
  • Wikis
  • Online gaming
  • Social Bookmarking
  • Internet forums and Chat rooms
  • Short messages (SMS)
  1. SECURITY, ETHICAL AND LEGAL CHALLENGES ONLINE
  • Cookies
  • Spyware
  • Trojan Horse
  • Worms
  • Hacking
  • Phishing
  • Trolling
  • Fake News
  • Graphic Manipulation
  • Plagiarism
  1. AUDIO JOURNALISM ONLINE
  • What is audio journalism online?
  • How to use an audio recorder
  • How to conduct an audio interview
  • How to edit audio online using free & open source software: Soundcloud or Audioboom
  • How to embed edited MP3 file directly on a web page, so people can listen to it
  • How to create and publish audio slideshows online

ASSIGNMENTS (40%)

Assignments are either individual or group

Assignment 1a: Individual

Sign up to Facebook and Twitter and follow the course lecturer- @amobifeoma

Assignment 1b: Group

Discuss the challenges and prospects of online journalism in Nigeria. Paper should be between 600 – 900 words and must be scholarly.

Assignment 2: Group:

Create a free account (username) at WordPress.com, create a new blog at WordPress.com and post your assignment 1 to your new blog. Format and test the hyperlinks to at least two different news websites in Nigeria. You may use images to enhance your work. Send your blog URL to my dedicated email address (amobifeoma@ymail.com).

Assignment 3: Select a news website of your choice and choose a multimedia story. Explore the package and write a critique of not more than 900 words. Publish it to a new post on your blog and send me the URL before the deadline

Assignment 4: Group

Conduct and record a short interview of about three minutes, on any subject of your choice. Edit the audio file to remove your voice using Audacity, leaving only the narrative of the personality you interviewed. Export the edited file as MP3 and copy the audio file to the public folder in your Dropbox. Get a URL for your audio file from Dropbox. Create a new blog post in your blog and using that URL create an audio player in that post and publish the blog post. Before embarking on this assignment, you would have been taught how to download the editing software-Audacity, and how to get a URL from the public folder in your Dropbox.

______________________________________________________________________________

EXAMINATION (60%)

______________________________________________________________________________

COMPULSORY TEXT

Amobi, T. I. & McAdams, M. (2014). Issues and techniques of multimedia and online journalism. Lagos: Concept Publications Limited

RECOMMENDED READINGS

Rosales, R.G. (2006). The elements of online journalism. New York: iUniverse Inc.

Onyeka Uwakwe, (2010). Introduction to Mass Communication in the digital age

Deggans, E.C. (2006). ”What Is Your Media Pyramid?,” Poynter

Glaser, Mark. (2003) “Online News Pioneers see lots of changes in the first 10 years,” OJR,

Gordon, R. (2005) “Online opportunities make journalism’s future bright, despite gloomy feelings,” OJR

Paul, N. (2005). “New News’ retrospective: Is online news reaching its potential?” OJR

RESOURCES

Online Journalism around the World

National Public Radio

http://www.npr.com

“I hope so too”- The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/01/15/us/politics/20090115/HOPE.html

Los Angeles Homicide Report- Los Angeles Times http://projects.latimes.com/ homicide/map/

Lili and JJ’s day of joy (Audio slide)

http://www.profteri.wordpress.com/

NPR Morning Edition program

http://www.npr.org./templates/story/story.php?storyId=3

BBC History of the World in 100 Objects Series

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/

New York Times Podcasts

http://www.nytimes.com/ref/multimedia/podcasts.html/

Aljazeera Podcasts

http://english.aljazeera.net/programmes/general/2008/09/2008915153339521328.html

Super Fast Guide to Audio Editing

http://www.jtoolkit.com/audio/Audacity.guide.pdf

This one provides all the links and instructions for downloading Audacity, LAME and Switch

Editing Audio with Audacity (Part 2)

http://www.jtoolkit.com/audio/EditingAudioPart2.pdf

 
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Posted by on January 19, 2018 in Uncategorized

 

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MAS 850: COMMUNICATION & PUBLIC HEALTH: Course syllabus and Outline

                                           UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS

                             SCHOOL OF POSTGRADUATE STUDIES

 

                          MAS 850: COMMUNICATION & PUBLIC HEALTH

Course syllabus and Outline

 

                                               Lecturer: Dr. Ifeoma T. Amobi

Email: teribabe57@yahoo.com

Email: tamobi@unilag.edu.ng

Twitter: @amobifeoma

Blog: http://www.profteri.wordpress.com

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is designed to provide students with a critical understanding of the effects of communication—mass, social, and participatory—in promoting and impeding the achievement of public health goals. Students will develop the skills necessary to use communication strategically to advance public health policies and social change. The course covers the design, implementation and evaluation of communication campaigns to promote public health goals, examines theories and research on media influences with respect to its potential harmful effects on wellbeing.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

 Upon completion of the course students should be able to:

  • Familiarize themselves with communication typologies and basic theories, models and concepts about the effects of the mass, social and participatory media and health communication;
  • Understand how communication is used to advance a public health organization’s goals and objectives and identify the strengths and weaknesses of different communications options;
  •  Build the fundamental skills needed to inform and educate people about health issues, including understanding and communicating about population health, communicating /advocating for policy change, communicating with the public using appropriate health literacy and numeracy levels.
  • Build the fundamental skills needed to influence people to adopt healthy behaviors, including engaging target audiences, partners and other stakeholders.
  • Identify appropriate behavior change theories; using social marketing and media literacy strategies; conducting formative research; creating a health communication strategic plan;
  • Formulate appropriate, culturally centered, media campaign objectives and design health communication campaigns for an identified target audience
  • Design the public health campaign messages that can be disseminated by mass and social media (TV, radio, film, Facebook, YouTube, etc.), and;
  • Recognize the challenges inherent in the use of health communication campaigns designed to persuade people to change or modify their behavior.

COURSE CONTENT

  1. INTRODUCTION
  • Pillars of Communication for Public Health
  • Importance of communication in Public Health Intervention Programmes
  1. NATURE OF COMMUNICATION, ENVIRONMENT & SOCIETY
  • Communication Defined
  • Categories of communication: Spoken, Verbal, Non-Verbal, Written, Visualization
  • Elements of Communication
  • The Communication Process
  • Barriers to Communication
  1. HEALTH MISINFORMATION AND DISINFORMATION
  • Health Communication
  • Information Disorder: Misinformation and Disinformation
  • Misinformation and Disinformation: Threat to Public Health Security
  • How To Fight Misinformation and Disinformation
  1. COMMUNICATION THEORIES, HEALTH & BEHAVIOUR CHANGE COMMUNICATION THEORIES/MODELS
  • What is theory? Model?
  • Hypodermic Needle/Bullet Theory
  • Individual Differences Theory
  • Selectivity Processes
  • Uses and Gratifications
  • Diffusion of Innovations, Acceptance, Rejection, Avoidance theories
  • Health Belief Model
  • Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Theory of Planned Behaviour
  • Transtheoretical Model or Stages of Change
  • Communication for Social Change Theory
  1. SOCIAL MARKETING PARADIGM: DESIGNING COMMUNICATION MESSAGES
  • What is Social Marketing?
  • What is Message Design Theory?
  • Key Steps in designing a communications message/strategy
  • Key elements of the campaign message
  • Communications Techniques and Tools
  • Issues to consider when crafting the message
  • Determining communication channel: The medium is the message

     6. SOCIAL MEDIA AND PUBLIC HEALTH COMMUNICATION

  • How Social Media is shaking up Public Health and Healthcare
  • Social Media Engagement for Public Health
  • Benefits of Social Media in Healthcare
  • Social Media Strategies for Public Health Communication
  • Challenges of Social Media in Public Health Communication

   7. DESIGNING HEALTH BEHAVIOUR CHANGE CAMPAIGN MESSAGES FOR THE FOLLOWING HEALTH ISSUES 

  • Female Genital Mutilation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension/Hypotension
  • Mental Disorder
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Leprosy
  • Dental Caries
  • Elephantiasis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Herpatitis
  • Goitre
  • Ebola

Readings will be available on my blog and also distributed in class. 

Course Format and Requirements

Given the interdisciplinary nature of public health, this course will employ a range of information sources and presentation modalities, e.g., lecture/discussion, student presentations, interactive group exercises, scholarly texts, film/video, websites, and guest speakers.  The course will use the notion of the classroom as a “community of learners” as its foundation.  As such, each class member is expected to participate in both learning and leading discussion throughout the semester.  This not only assumes preparation, but also active engagement. The value of this class is directly proportional to the amount of effort participants put into preparing for class discussions about the issues on focus. Class participation will carry the same weight as other major assignments in assessing individual grades. To promote student engagement, each student will be part of a group that will lead discussion and/or make presentation for one class session.

                                                     ASSIGNMENTS 

First assignment/Weekly blog reflection responses: Over the course of the semester you will be writing blog entries on the course blog (http://www.mas850.wordpress.com). Your blog posts essentially will include your designed health your campaigns and also serve as reflection papers on the course readings. Further, they may be used as resources when constructing your digital stories.  Blog posts are due online after your class presentations and any other time you wish to publish ideas of relevance to the course. I would also like to encourage each of you to respond to others’ blog posts—the blog is a forum for creating a community conversation on the assigned topics. The blog posts will be graded and those that link to outside experiences and alternative ways of learning about course materials, and critically consider what is learned from course readings, discussions and activities.

Second assignment: Health communication campaign/message design: In this component, students are required to work in groups and engage in a collaborative process to identify thematic clusters and brainstorm individual topics. You will be encouraged to synthesize what you have learned during the semester to create a message design/ health campaign on an assigned health issue, aimed at influencing a determined target audience towards a desired health behaviour/practice. This assignment has the potential to allow you to enact and realize your roles as future community health educators. The topic assigned will require you to engage with methods and theories related to the major themes and to relevant problems/issues of concern to professionals in the discipline of community health education. All projects must be approved and students are required to present and defend their projects in class, while their peers are expected to offer constructive criticisms. These projects should be posted on the course blog as a way to foster dialogue on the given topics and connect to the field of public health at large.

GRADING SYSTEM

  1. Attendance, assignments and class participation will account for 40% of the total score in this course.
  2. The semester examination will account for the remaining 60%.

Cell phone and laptop policy

Turn your cell phones off or to the “silent” mode during class. Students seen texting, chatting, or checking email on their laptop computers or cell phones will be asked to leave class for the day and will be considered absent for the class period.

 

RECOMMENDED TEXTS

 Akinfeleye, R. A. (2008). Health and behaviour change communication for development

Lagos: Spectrum Books Limited

Amobi, T. I. (2012). Exploring the suitability of the CFSC theory in health communication campaigns: A study of pregnant women’s responses to messages on the adoption of ITNs for malaria prevention. Verlag: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

Anaeto, S. G., Onabajo, O. & Osifeso, J. B. (2008). Models and theories of communication

Bowie, MD: African Renaissance Inc.

Backer, T. E., Rogers, E. M. and Sopory. P. (1992). Designing health communication campaigns: What works? Newbury Park, London: Sage

Baran, S.J. and Davis, D. K. (2009). Mass communication theory: Foundations ferment & future.  5th edition, Belmont CA.: Wadsworth

Folarin, B. (2003). Theories of mass communication: An introductory text.

Jeffres, L. W. (1997). Mass media effects 2nd edition, Illinois: Waveland Press Inc.

Littlejohn, S.W. and Foss, K.A. (2008). Theories of human communication. 9th edition, Belmont, CA.: Thompson Wadsworth

McQuail, D. (2005). Mass communication theory: An introduction. 5th edition, Thousand Oaks: Sage

McQuail, D. (2010). Mass communication theory: An introduction. 6th edition, Thousand Oaks: Sage

Severin, W. J & Tankard, Jr. J. W. (2001),    Communication theories: Origins, methods & uses in the mass media. 5th edition, New York: Longman

Thorton, B. C. and Kreps, G. L. (1993). Perspectives on health communication. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press Inc.

Weinreich, N. K. (1999). Hands-on social marketing: A step-by-step guide. Thousand Oaks: Sage

 
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Posted by on July 1, 2017 in Uncategorized

 

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MAS 445: STATION OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT: COURSE SYLLABUS & OUTLINE

                                                   UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS

                                     DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION

                         MAS 445: STATION OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT

Course syllabus and Outline

                           

Lecturer: Dr. Ifeoma T. Amobi

Email: adaure.amobi3@gmail.com

Twitter: @amobifeoma

Blog: http://www.profteri.wordpress.com

                          &

Lecturer: Mr. Shaibu Husseini

Email: igalaman@yahoo.com

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course will provide students with the knowledge and skills of Radio and TV management and programming, through exposure to the theory and practice. It will examine broadcast media organizational structures and their relationships with employee functions and roles. It will also expose students to financial management, sales, promotion, marketing, audience research methods and broadcast media regulation.

.COURSE OBJECTIVES

 Upon completion of the course students should have an appreciable knowledge of how to deal with the complex nature and processes involved in station management and operations should they find themselves in such a position. Students should therefore:

  • Understand the duties and responsibilities of the various management positions at radio and television stations
  • Understand and demonstrate the ability to apply management theories to every day management of resources in broadcast media organizations
  • Demonstrate the ability to conduct broadcast audience research
  • Understand the basics of media financial management
  • Understand the influences of new technology on traditional and new media
  • Design and produce hypothetical programming and marketing plans for radio and television stations and understand the programming implications

COURSE CONTENT

 MANAGEMENT PROCESS
– Principles of Management
– Basic Concepts and Styles of Management and Leadership
– Management of Creativity

THEORISING MANAGEMENT
– Contingency theory
– Systems theory
– Chaos Theory
– Maslow’s Theory
– Theory X and Theory Y

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF BROADCAST MEDIA STATIONS
– Overview
– Functions, roles, and skills
– Importance of an Organizational Structure
– Problems Implementing an Organizational Structure

PROGRAMME PLANNING AND PRODUCTION
– Winning the audience
– The Programme Mix
– Scheduling
– Promoting the Output
– Branding
– Commissioning Programmes

EDITORIAL MANAGEMENT
– Judging a programme proposal
– Managing Production
– Programme Review
– From Idea to Screen
– Production Guidelines

BASIC STRATEGIES OF PROGRAMME PLANNING AND SCHEDULING

Flow; Blocking; Hammocking; Lead-ins and Lead-outs; Counter Programming; Stunting; Stripping; Check Boarding; Tentpoling; Hotswitching; Stacking; Time Slot; Pase; Theming; Spoiling

HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
– Job Description
– Appointments procedure
– Induction
– Training
– Assignment
– Appraisal and Career Development
– Remuneration
– Disciplinary Procedure
– Grievance Procedure
– Appeal Procedure
– Industrial Relations
– Equal Opportunities
– Health and Safety at Work
– Records

THE NATIONAL BROADCASTING COMMISSION (NBC) REGULATION AND PROGRAMMING POLICY
– Registration and Licensing
– Regulatory Codes
– Editorial Freedom

  ASSIGNMENTS (40%)

 Students will be asked to demonstrate their understanding of this course through written reports, and presentations, class participation, and discussions. As the final project, they will design hypothetical programming and marketing plans for radio and television stations. Create a free account (username) at WordPress.com

  • Set up a course blog on WordPress.com or Blogspot.com
  • Create a free account (username) at YouTube.com
  • Sign up to Twitter and follow the course lecturers at @amobifeoma and @igalaman
  • Create a Facebook account if you don’t already have one
  • Link your Twitter and Facebook accounts to your blog and YouTube accounts, so that whatever you publish on your blog or YouTube will be shared by both accounts
  • All assignments must be posted to either students’ YouTube channel and/or their group blog.

Exam (60%):

Textbooks and References

  1. Aina, S. (2002). Modern Media Management. Nigeria: Ebensun Publishers
  2. Thomas, J.P (2010) Media management manual: A handbook for television and radio practitioners in countries – in – transition. USA: UNESCO
  3. Onabajo, O. (2002). Station Management and Operations. Lagos: Gabi Concepts Limited
 
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MAS 202: Statistics for Social Sciences 11

                                          UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS

                              DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION

                                MAS 202: Statistics for Social Sciences 11

Course syllabus and Outline

Units: 2

 

Lecturers:

Ifeoma T. Amobi, Ph.D

Email: adaure.amobi3@gmail.com

Website: http://www.profteri.wordpress.com

Twitter: @amobifeoma

&

Jean Balouga, Ph.D

 

PRE- REQUISITE: Introduction to Statistics for Social Sciences 1

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is a continuation of the survey of elementary statistical concepts. It is intended to expose students to areas such as sampling, probability, estimation, averages, dispersion and tests of association and significance.

 COURSE OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of the course students should be able to solve problems related to sampling, probability, estimation, averages, dispersion and tests of association and significance. They are also expected to understand and apply Social Statistics in Mass Communication research.

COURSE CONTENT

  1. ELEMENTARY PROBABILITY THEORY
  • What is Probability?
  • Random sampling
  • Probability and frequency distributions
  1. SAMPLING
  • Definition
  • Probability Sampling
  • Non-Probability Sampling
  1. SURVEY SAMPLING
  • Definition
  • Sampling Bias
  • Sample Size Determination
  1. PROBABILITY AND SAMPLES
  • Samples and sampling errors
  • Distribution of sample means
  • Probability and the distribution of sample means
  1. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS
  • Frequency distribution tables
  • Frequency distribution graphs
  • The shape of a frequency distribution
  • Other types of graphs
  1. TESTING HYPOTHESES FOR STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
  • Research hypotheses: The Null and Alternative hypotheses
  • Testing hypothesis for statistical significance
  • The importance of significance
  • Error: Definition, Types, Balancing Type 1 and Type 11 error

ASSIGNMENTS

Students will be asked to demonstrate their understanding of the course through class participation and one mid- semester examination.

RECOMMENDED TEXTS

Lerche, O. Social and economic statistics

Murray, R. Spiegel, Theory and problems of statistics

Sobowale, I. (2008). Scientific journalism, Lagos: Idosa Konsult

Tejumaye, A. (2003). Mass communication research: An introduction, Lagos: Dapson International Nigeria Ltd.

Wimmer, R. D. & Dominick, J. R. (2006). Mass media research: An introduction, Belmont, C.A.: Thomson Wadsworth

Wimmer, R. D. & Dominick, J. R. (2010). Mass media research: An introduction, Belmont, C.A.: Thomson Wadsworth

 

 

 
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Posted by on May 28, 2017 in Uncategorized

 

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